Civilians in camps in northernmost Kachin state lack adequate shelter, sanitation as well as food and water
supplies, and with the monsoon looming the risk of malaria and other diseases is increasing, relief workers say.
UN agencies are struggling to deliver aid to those most in need, particularly in rebel-held areas in the mountainous state bordering China, and access will become even harder when the rainy season starts in around May.
“The weather would have a huge impact on anybody that is displaced,” said Aye Win, a spokesman for the United Nations in Yangon, urging “a solution so that aid can be delivered as soon as possible”.
The campaign group Refugees International has warned of the risk of a “serious humanitarian crisis” in the region.
Many of the refugees are traumatised after fleeing clashes between government troops and guerrillas with the Kachin Independence Army (KIA), which controls swathes of the state.
The predominantly Baptist and Catholic Kachin account for about seven per cent of Myanmar’s population and live in the remote far north near China.
The KIA used to be one of the most powerful armed rebel groups, but signed a ceasefire with the junta in 1994.
Today their guerilla army is still thought to be at least several thousand strong.
The conflict re-erupted in June last year as anger grew over a clutch of Chinese-backed hydropower projects in the region.
Fighting has raged since then despite the new quasi-civilian government’s insistence that it wants to reach
peace deals with the country’s various armed rebel groups.
“When the mines exploded near our home, it was like an earthquake.
“Our houses were shaken. We were really frightened,” Khun Mai, a 37-year-old ethnic Kachin woman, said while cradling her three-month-old baby at a camp housing hundreds of refugees in a church compound.
Having reached the state capital Myitkyina, which is relatively easy for relief workers to access, her family has a temporary bamboo hut to sleep in and food donations from local aid groups and the UN World Food Programme.
She and her family fled their home near the town of Laiza, which is under the control of the KIA, in June last year and crossed into government-held territory.
Some of her relatives and friends, including children from her village, were killed by landmines or illness while escaping.
“My children think they have to run away forever,” Khun Mai said.
A new report by Human Rights Watch, due out on Tuesday, estimates that about 75,000 ethnic Kachin people have been displaced by the conflict.
It accuses the Myanmar army of abuses such as the torture and rape of civilians, conscripted forced labour on the frontlines – including children as young as 14 – and blocking international relief efforts.
The report also accuses the Kachin rebels of using child soldiers and anti-personnel landmines, and the refugees fear that even a peace pact would not end the violence.
“I worry the situation could be worse if there is a ceasefire. The (government) soldiers do what they want in our region,” said Aung Mai, a 39-year-old bishop staying at a camp in the government-held town of Bahmo.
Civil war has gripped parts of Myanmar since independence in 1948. An end to the conflicts and alleged rights abuses involving government troops is a key demand of Western nations which have imposed sanctions on the regime.
While the government has signed peace deals with other insurgent groups, several rounds of talks with the political wing of the Kachin rebels have failed to bear fruit.