Valerie Loiseau, 28, recalled the fateful day – January 12, 2010 – when she lost everything and her life changed forever.
“I got here at 6pm, a few moments after the earthquake, with my children, my daughter, a few months old, in my arms, and nothing else.”
Two years after the 7.0-magnitude quake visited near-biblical destruction on Haiti, killing between 200,000 and 300,000 people, she is still in the camp with her daughter Kelida, now three.
Some 15 per cent of Haiti’s entire population of almost 10 million were either killed or displaced by the quake. Almost 520,000 survivors still live under tarpaulin in 800 camps around the capital of three million.
Shocked in the immediate aftermath of one of the deadliest disasters of modern times, the international community promised billions of dollars of aid money. Decentralisation was the buzzword in a plan to be implemented under the watchful eye of former US president Bill Clinton.
This grandiose vision now appears to have been a pipe-dream.
Less than half the $4.59 billion pledged has been received and disbursed. While Haitian officials voice fears that the country is turning into a republic run by non-governmental organisations (NGOs), they also admit they have no choice.
“We are not yet ready to replace the NGOs,” Haiti’s minister of planning and external coordination minister Jude Herve Day told AFP, admitting that the outside groups bring services the state is not able to provide.
More than 50 per cent of the quake rubble has now been cleared. Most of the hundreds of thousands of people who fled Port-au-Prince after the quake have since returned to the overcrowded capital, desperate for work and food in a country still lacking another effective pole to attract labour.
Michel Martelly, a former carnival entertainer, was sworn in as the new president in May, promising to bring
the change that the country so badly needs.
But faced with a parliament dominated by his political opponents, it took him five months to even get a prime minister appointed.
Martelly has recently tried to nurture smaller, community-based projects such as a flagship housing program, aimed at taking residents out of six camps and relocating them to 16 neighbourhoods.
Alongside it, he has created the Carmen project, whereby approved home-owners receive funds to repair their houses under the supervision of certified engineers.
Josef Leitmann, programme manager of the World Bank-run Haiti Reconstruction Fund, sees glimmers of progress at last.
“You have a vision of where the government wants to go, and that’s just critical,” he told AFP. “Second you’ve got leadership to take that vision and communicate it to people and inspire people and third you have political will to implement the vision.”
Hundreds of thousands who lost homes in the quake are still in a legal quagmire as there was no paperwork to prove their small holdings.
A cholera epidemic, blamed on UN peacekeepers from Nepal, shows no sign of abating. Nearly 7,000 have died, and 520,000 been infected.
“What we are looking at in Haiti today is not just recovery from the earthquake. It’s not just dealing with a cholera epidemic,” Nigel Fisher, the UN’s chief humanitarian officer in Haiti, told AFP.
“Those came on top of a country which was structurally broken.”
Experts say the key to Haiti’s long-term sustainability lies in rebuilding its agricultural sector. But the one-time exporter now has to import rice for 80 per cent of its population and soil fertility is so poor that most crops can no longer be supported.
The World Bank in December approved $50 million for new agricultural projects, investing in key Haitian products such as coffee and cocoa. Loiseau, like most of the quake refugees, needs a miracle. “My hope is God, not the leaders of this country,” she said.